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Convergent evolution generally refers to the independent evolution of similar biological function more than once in unrelated species. Caffeine is thought to have evolved by convergence, and is naturally produced through secondary metabolism in plants to defend against pathogen attack and insect feeding or to attract pollinators. The same caffeine biosynthetic pathway has been elucidated in.
Recently, energy drinks that contain high caffeine content without any age restrictions for purchase, have been introduced into the U.S. market. Caffeine consumption in the U.S. has increased dramatically, resulting in an increase in emergency room visits and calls to poison control centers. This increase in energy drink consumption, along with the traditional coffees, teas, and soft drinks.
The current study sought to directly compare effects of caffeine-matched (300 mg) doses of caffeine anhydrous (CAF) and coffee (COF) on strength and sprint performance, and to determine if CAF or COF intake modulate the effects of creatine (CRE) loading.
Caffeine is found naturally in foods and beverages such as coffee, tea, colas, energy and chocolate. Botanical sources of caffeine include kola nuts, guarana, and yerba mate. Caffeine is also available in prescription and non-prescription medications. Caffeine is used to restore mental alertness or wakefulness during fatigue or drowsiness.
Caffeine combined with alcohol produced an antagonistic effect on locomotor behaviors and anxiety-like behaviors compared to alcohol alone. Furthermore, concomitant alcohol and caffeine exposure revealed increased c-Fos protein expression, a biomarker of neuronal activation, in the zebrafish brain region homologous to the mammalian amygdala, the medial pallium.
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